The Components of LEDs – How do they function?

May 8, 2018


These days, there are more advanced methods of making light. For instance, there are now dense fluorescent lamps that allow you to save both money and energy. There are also light-emitting diodes or LEDs which are obviously better than fluorescent lamps and as bright, if not brighter than, bulbs. But the question is what exactly LED is.

What is an LED?

In the simplest term, LED is one of the many types of semiconductor devices that give off lights when an electric current passes through it. LEDs are composed of two conductive resources that are retained in connection with each other when the electricity is smeared to the diode.

On the other hand, LEDs are smaller compared to other lamp bulbs and in fact, they only consume low energy. LEDs have come to be the most efficient source of lighting. Besides, they consume over 90 percent less energy compared to incandescent lighting. Nevertheless, LEDs are a lighting technology that is very much versatile.

What are the Components of LED?

In order to give details how an LED functions, it is very important that we should first explain its components.

– Post and Anvil

LEDs are composed of two leads that are both useful for supplying input voltage. These leads are known as Post which is the positive and longer lead and Anvil the negative and smaller lead. The Post and Anvil regulate the polarisation of the two leads. The Anvil, on the other hand, is used to hold the chip physically and it offers some directivity and heat-sinking to the released light.

– Semiconductor Die

It’s a tiny block of a semiconducting material wherein a given efficient circuit is made-up. As a matter of fact, it is considered as the heart of electronic devices and it consists of several integrated circuits.

– Reflective Cavity

In LEDs, light extraction is one of the most important aspects. The main purpose of this component is to make LED’s light even brighter by converging its light into only one point.

– Epoxy Lens or Case

This LED component has three most important functions and here are the following.

  1. It is specifically designed to let the majority of light to outflow from the semiconductor.
  2. It safeguards the LED semiconductor against outside element.
  3. It focuses the light.

However, the epoxy lens or case completely push in the whole unit in order to make the LED virtually durable.

How do LEDs Function?

If you are familiar with how incandescent technology works, then this is a whole different ball game. The LED technology is far different than whatever thing we have seen before.

Unlike incandescent lamps that develop their light by means of warming the tungsten filament, LEDs develop their light through a sensation known as electroluminescence. It is a phenomenon in which a particular material derives a light when an electric current passes over it.

This scenario takes place as soon as electrons are sent over and block up the electron dumps. Electron holes occur if an atom doesn’t have enough electrons and then partakes a positive charge. However, the number of electron holes can be controlled and created by fixing semiconductor materials such as silicon and germanium.

Breakdown of how LEDs function

Before lights are emanated, electrical energy must pass over an LED driver before anything else. After which, the diode which is known as a special form of semiconductor glows when an electrical energy is passed through it. With this, we can now develop light from LEDs. However, when the electrical energy passes through the diode, LED give off light that passes over a phosphorus covering in order to enhance the quality of light produced by LEDs.


LEDs are simply designed and created to emit light. But it turned out that LEDs are considered as an eco-friendly, long life, and energy efficient substitute to traditional lighting. Because, as already mentioned, it uses lower energy compared to incandescent lightings. Apart from that, it also comes with a lot of benefits. So if you’re a business owner or homeowner who is looking for a better and easier way to reduce your electricity bill, then LED is the best possible solution.

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